In a global context marked by both rising prices and demand, and a drop in fossil fuel reserves, major challenges are needed in terms of reducing energy consumption and gas emissions. greenhouse effect.
In Morocco, annual energy consumption (all sources combined) averages 0.5 tonnes of oil equivalent per capita, and increases by 4.3% each year.
Indeed, Morocco faces two major energy challenges:
Energy dependence compared to abroad, 96.6% of energy is imported.
Consumption of primary energy which increases by 5% / year.
The building sector is among the most energy-intensive sectors in Morocco with energy consumption of up to 33%, divided into 7% for commercial buildings and 26% for residential buildings. This consumption is subject to increase given the demographic growth, the creation of new cities and the sustained use of air conditioning and heating systems that Morocco is experiencing.
The building sector alone represents an energy saving potential of 40%.
This policy of Energy Efficiency in Morocco was concretized by the adoption of the law 47-09 in 2009.
Approach and energy efficiency measures
Energy efficiency in the building sector can be achieved in two ways:
1-The passive component of the building or the envelope
The interaction experienced by the building envelope with its environment following the various phenomena of conduction, convection and radiation generates significant losses.
This illustration shows that heat escapes from a poorly insulated home to 30% roofing (so this is the priority in terms of insulation), to 25% by the walls, to 10% or 15% by the windows and windows and 7% or 10% by soils.
This demonstrates the importance of improving the thermal performance of the envelope through the implementation of various EE measures such as:
- Thermal insulation
- The use of efficient glazing (double or triple glazing)
- The elimination of thermal bridges
- The optimal orientation and compactness of the building
In this perspective and in order to establish a regulatory and normative framework governing the energy performance in the building sector, a Thermal Regulation of Construction in Morocco (RTCM) exists since 2015 and required at the level of building permits.
The objective is to introduce minimum requirements for new residential and commercial buildings to optimize their heating and cooling needs while improving thermal comfort, according to two approaches:
- Performance approach: gives the maximum limits of the thermal needs in kWh / m².an
- Prescriptive approach: sets the regulatory requirements for the thermal characteristics of the building envelope.
The thermal performances required in the RTCM differ according to the type of building (residential or tertiary) and according to the climatic zone where it is located. Indeed, the RTCM divides Morocco into 6 climatic zones:
Indeed, thermal regulation is very profitable for residential and tertiary buildings.
- Residential: An additional cost of 2.1 to 4.3% and a reduction of needs from 39 to 64%
- Tertiary: An additional cost of less than 3% and a reduction in requirements of 40 to 59%
To facilitate the conformity study of residential or tertiary buildings at the RTCM, the AMEE has designed the software Binayate (free on our website) to perform compliance studies according to both the performancial and prescriptive approaches. This software is intended for engineers, architects, administrations, academics and professionals of the building sector.
2-The active part of the building
Energy consumption in the building sector can be based on the various installed equipment such as:
- The HVAC system
- The ventilation system
- The lighting
- The substations (PC, TV, printers, etc ...)
- Appliances (refrigerator, dishwasher, washing machine)
Of these, refrigerators and air conditioners are the most energy intensive. As a result, the AMEE has developed energy labeling standards and the technical elements of MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standard) air conditioners and refrigerators to reduce the energy bill.
The NM 14.2.301 relating to the requirements for refrigeration appliances sets out the labeling requirements for mains-powered household refrigerators and freezers with a storage volume of between 10 and 1,500 liters.
This standard gives the classification of household refrigeration appliances and the method of calculating their EEI energy efficiency index which will subsequently define the energy class of the refrigerator.
The energy labeling standard for electrical products and appliances NM 14.2.302 relating to the requirements for air conditioners also defines the energy class of the air conditioner according to its SEER and SCOP depending on its type, as well as the different technical characteristics to be defined in the data sheets and the energy label of the air conditioner.
The AMEE also participates in the popularization of technical knowledge relating to energy efficiency through the development and publication of various technical guides (downloadable on our website):
- b.a.ba of Energy Efficiency in everyday life
- Technical manual of lighting
- Technical Guide for Ventilation and Air Conditioning Heating
- Good practices of energy efficiency in buildings
- Technical Guide of Thermal Insulation
- Technical Guide to Energy Efficiency in the Tourism Sector
- Thermos-physical properties of local building materials in Morocco
- Bonnes Pratiques d’économie d’énergie dans les Hammams Publics